Sindhis hail from Sindh, a province, now in Pakistan, but previously a part of undivided India. It was in Sindh where one of the earliest, world-renowned, Indus Valley civilization (2300 BC - 1760 BC) flourished. The Indus Valley civilization is considered a marvel in social set-up and communal living. Sindh covers an area of 58,000 square miles. It's capital is Karachi.

The first mention of Sind is to be found in the Mahabharata, where Jayadratha the Aryan king of Sind fought against Krishna - on the side of the Kauravas against the Pandavas. Mention is also made in the Upanishads about Sind being famous for horses ! It is not known how long the Aryan kings ruled in the land, but Sind is next mentioned in History about five centuries before Christ, when Darius, the King of Iran (Persia), attacked India, captured the Punjab and then sailed from Peshawar in boats down the river Indus, and conquered it.

Hindu Sindhis were forced by circumstances beyond their control to leave their land of birth, their homes and belongings and flee to India in 1947. 


Sindh Was Ruled By The Following Dynasties After the Arab Invasion:

    The Sumra Dynasty                             (750 [1026?] - 1350 A.D.)

    The Samma Dynasty                          (1351 - 1521 A.D.)

    The Arghun Dynasty                          (1521 - 1554 A.D.)

    The Turkhan Dynasty                        (1555 - 1608 A.D.)

    The Moghul Dynasty                         (1608 - 1701 A.D.)

    The Kalhora Dynasty                        (1701 - 1783 A.D.)

    The Talpur Dynasty                           (1783 - 1843 A.D.)

    The British Rule                                 (1843 - 1947 A.D.)

    The Pakistani Rule                            (1947 A.D. Onward


    BC 6000 : Indus Valley - Neolithic settlements.
    BC 5000 : Farming, pottery and beads developed.
    BC 4000 : Potter’s wheel and bow drill invented.
    BC 3500 : Growth of pottery.
    BC 3000 : Amri civilization and its ruins.
    BC 3100-850 : Sindhi language evolved over a period of 2400 years.
    BC 2500 : Kani Kot ruins - civilization
    BC 2300 : Mohen-jo-daro civilization
    BC 1700 : Aryan rule for about 1000 years starting 1700 BC.
    BC 1500 : Sehwan (Sivistan) was important center of Shiva cult.
    BC 810 : Egyptian Emperor Sume Rames attacked Sindh
    BC 566-490 : Huns ruled Sindh.
    BC 519 : Sindh annexed to Persian Achaemenian Empire ruled by King Darius for about 125 years.
    BC 326-325 : Alexander the "Great" stormed through the Indus Valley, met resistance in Sindh and was injured in Multan.
    BC 313 : Buddhism was popularised in Sindh during emperor Ashoka’s period.

    AD 280-500 : Persian rule.
    AD 550-711 : i) Rai Sahiras and his son Rai Sahasi ruled Sindh and formed Rai Dynasty. (ii) Chach succeeded the Rai and founded Brahman Dynasty. (iii) Raja Dahar (Chach’s son) took over from Chander (Chach’s brother). Raja Dahar ruled Sindh for several years until the invasion of Arabs, when he was martyred.
    AD 711-1026 : Sindh was invaded by a 17-year old Arab General,
    Muhammad Bin Qasim, establishing the Arab rule for next
    305 years.
    AD 1026-1350 : Soomro Dynasty ruled Sindh for 300 years.
    AD 1054 : Soomras faced ruinous invasion by Mahmood Ghaznavi and
    Allauddin Khilji.
    AD 1351 : The rise of the Samma Dynasty in Sindh. "Jams of
    Lasbella or currently known as the Alianis"
    AD 1521-1554 : Arghun Rule was established in Sindh by Shah
    Beg. He was a descendant of Changez Khan.
    AD 1554-1591 : General Mirza Isa Beg found Tarkhan Dynasty in
    Sindh (Turks in origin) after the death of Shah Hassan Arghun.
    AD 1555 : Portuguese sacked Thatta, a bustling metropolis of
    AD 1591-1700 : Shanshah Akbar, the Ruler of Hindustan, annexed Sindh, and ruled Sindh by appointing his governors. (40 Governors were appointed during the 81 years of rule.)
    AD 1701-1782 : Kalhoras ruled Sindh for 85 years. Twelve Kalhora rulers ruled during this time. This period is known as the golden period of Sindhi literature. Poets like Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Sachal Sarmast, and Sami are among the prominent poets of Sindh.
    AD 1782-1843 : Talpurs ruled Sindh for 61 years. The country was divided into three states - Hyderabad State, Khairpur State and the State of Mirpur Khas.
    AD 1843 : Talpur rulers of Sindh and Baluchistan were defeated by the British under Sir Charles Napier.
    AD 1847 : Sindh was made part of Bombay Presidency by the British.
    AD 1851 : Sindhi language was declared official language of Sindh.
    AD 1853 : Final and refined version of Sindhi script was adopted by the British throughout Sindh and Bombay, which still exist in Sindh today.
    AD 1908 : Barrister Ghulam M. Bhurgri and Harchandrai Vishindas demanded independence of Sindh from Bombay.
    AD 1936 : Sindh regained independence from Bombay Presidency.

    AD 1947 : India achieved independence from British rule after a long struggle and great sacrifices. Sindh became part of newly created Islamic State of Pakistan. Riots and violence erupted in Sindh. A massive exodus of Hindu Sindhis resulted. More than 1.1 million Sindhis migrated to India.

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